JIHAD: Not A "Holy War"?

User Rating: 4 / 5

Star ActiveStar ActiveStar ActiveStar ActiveStar Inactive
Jihad for Dummies

Islam Newsroom - "News We Need - When We Need It"

I hope this helps show the truth about Jihad - Yusuf Estes

What is the REAL answer for Muslims and Non-Muslims?

Explaining Misconceptions About Islam & JIHAD

By : M. Amir Ali, Ph.D.

With Editorial Notes from Yusuf Estes

Jihad for Dummies

Written by my dear friend, the late, Dr. M. Amir Ali, may Allah have Mercy on him, Ameen.

Linguisticly, the Arabic word "jihad" only means struggling or striving.

This meaning works with any effort exerted by anyone. In this sense, a student struggles and strives to get an education and pass course work; an employee strives to fulfill his/her job and maintain good relations with his/her employer; a politician strives to maintain or increase his [1] popularity with his constituents and so on.

The term strive or struggle may be used for/by Muslims as well as non-Muslims; for example, Allah, the One and Only True God says in the Quran:

"We have enjoined on people kindness to parents; but if they STRIVE (JAHADAKA) to make you ascribe partners with Me that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not..." (29:8; also see 31:15)

In the above two verses of the Quran, it is non-Muslim parents who “strive to make you” (jahadaka) to convert their Muslim child back to their religion.

In the West, "jihad" is generally translated as "holy war," a usage the media has popularized.

According to Islamic teachings, it is UNHOLY to instigate or start war; however, some wars are inevitable and justifiable. If we translate the words "holy war" back into Arabic, we find "harbun muqaddasatu," or for "the holy war," "al-harbu al-muqaddasatu."

WE CHALLENGE any researcher or scholar to find the meaning of "jihad" as holy war in the Quran or authentic Hadith collections or in early Islamic literature.

Unfortunately, some Muslim writers and translators of the Quran, the Hadith and other Islamic literature translate the term "jihad" as "holy war," due to the influence of centuries-old Western propaganda.

This could be a reflection of the Christian use of the term "Holy War" to refer to the Crusades of a thousand years ago. However, the Arabic words for "war" are "harb" or "qital," these are found in the Quran and Hadith.

For Muslims the term JIHAD is applied to all forms of STRIVING and has developed some special meanings over time. The sources of this development are the Quran (the Word of God revealed to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.

The Quran and the Hadith use the word "jihad" in several different contexts which are given below:


It is human nature to love what is seen with the eyes and felt with the senses more than the UNSEEN REALITY. The Creator of the Universe and the One God is Allah. He is the Unseen Reality which we tend to ignore and not recognize. The Quran addresses those who claim to be believers:

       "O you who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for protectors if they love disbelief over belief; whoever of you takes them for protectors, such are wrong-doers. Say: if your fathers, and your children, and your brethren, and your spouses, and your tribe, and the wealth you have acquired, and business for which you fear shrinkage, and houses you are pleased with are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and STRIVING in His way: then wait till Allah brings His command to pass. Allah does not guide disobedient folk." (9:23, 24)

It is indeed a struggle to put Allah ahead of our loved ones, our wealth, our worldly ambitions and our own lives. Especially for a non-Muslim who embraces Islam, it may be a tough struggle due to the opposition of his family, peers and society.


Once a person has made up his mind to put the Creator of the Universe above all else, he often comes under intense pressures. It is not easy to resist such pressures and STRIVE to maintain dedication and love of Allah over all else. A person who has turned to Islam from another religion may be subjected to pressures designed to turn him back to the religion of the family. We read in the Quran:

        "So obey not the rejecters of faith, but strive (jahidhum) against them by it (the Quran) with a great endeavor." (25:52)


Allah says in the Qur'an:

        "And STRIVE (JADIHU) for Allah with the endeavor (JIHADIHI) which is His right. He has chosen you and has not laid upon you in the DEEN (way of life) any hardship..." (22:78)

      "And whosoever STRIVES (JAHADA), STRIVES (YUJAHIDU) only for himself, for lo! Allah is altogether independent of the universe." (29:6)

As for those who strive and struggle to live as true Muslims whose lives are made difficult due to persecution by their opponents, they are advised to migrate to a more peaceful and tolerant land and continue with their struggle in the cause of Allah. Allah says in the Quran:

       "Lo! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they wronged themselves, (the angels) will ask: 'In what you were engaged?' They will way: 'We were oppressed in the land.' (The angels) will say: 'Was not Allah's earth spacious that you could have migrated therein?'" (4:97)

       "Lo! Those who believe, and those who emigrate (to escape persecution) and STRIVE (JAHADU) in the way of Allah, these have hope of Allah's mercy..." (2:218)

Allah tests the believers in their faith and their steadfastness:

       "Or did you think that you would enter Paradise while yet Allah knows not those of you who really STRIVE (JAHADU), nor knows those (of you) who are steadfast." (3:142)

       "And surely We shall try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and fruits; but give tidings to the steadfast." (2:155)

We find that the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and his follwers were boycotted socially and economically for over 2 years to force him to stop his message and compromise with the pagans but he resisted and realized a moral victory [2].


Allah declares in the Quran:

"As for those who STRIVE (JAHADU) in Us (the cause of Allah), We surely guide them to Our paths, and lo! Allah is with the good doers." (29:69)

When we are faced with two competing interests, it becomes jihad to choose the right one, as the following Hadith exemplify:

  "Aisha, wife of the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked, 'O Messenger of Allah, we see jihad as the best of deeds, so shouldn't we join it?' He replied, 'But the best of jihad is a perfect Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah).'" (Sahih Al-Bukhari #2784)

At another occasion, a man asked the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him,:

"'Should I join the jihad?' He asked, 'Do you have parents?' The man said, 'Yes!' The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, 'Then STRIVE by serving them!'" (Sahih Al-Bukhari #5972)

Yet another man asked the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him,:

"'What kind of jihad is better?' He replied, 'A word of truth in front of an oppressive ruler!'" (Sunan Al-Nasa'i #4209)

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: "...the MUJAHID (one who carries out jihad) is he who STRIVES against himself for the sake of Allah, and the MUHAJIR (one who emigrates) is he who abandons evil deeds and sin." (Sahih Ibn Hibban #4862)


The Quran narrates the experiences of a large number of Prophets and good people who suffered a great deal trying to convey the message of Allah to mankind.

For examples, see the Quran 26:1-190, 36:13-32. In the Quran, Allah specifically praises those who strive to convey His message:

       "Who is better in speech than one who calls (other people) to Allah, works righteous, and declares that he is from the Muslims." (41:33)

Under adverse conditions it takes great courage to remain a Muslim, declare oneself to be a Muslim and call others to Islam. We read in the Quran:

      "The (true) believers are only those who believe in Allah and his messenger and afterward doubt not, but STRIVE with their wealth and their selves for the cause of Allah. Such are the truthful." (49:15)


Allah declares in the Quran:

       "To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to defend themselves), because they are wronged - and verily, Allah is Most Powerful to give them victory - (they are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right - (for no cause) except that they say, 'Our Lord is Allah'..." (22:39-40)

The Quran permits fighting to defend the religion of Islam and the Muslims. This permission includes fighting in self-defense and for the protection of family and property.

The early Muslims fought many battles against their enemies under the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, or his representatives.

For example, when the pagans of Quraysh brought armies against Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, the Muslims fought to defend their faith and community [3].

The Quran adds:

       "Combat in the cause of Allah against those who combat against you, but do not transgress limits. Certainly Allah does not love aggressors!

        And combat with them until persecution is no more, and religion is for Allah. But if they stop, then let there be no hostility except only against transgressors." (2:190-193)

Commentary regarding verses 189 to 193 in chapter 2 (Al Baqarah) from Yusuf Estes:

Note: Regarding the above mentioned verses in Surah Baqarah - The word "jihad"does not even appear in any of these verses. In fact, it does not appear in the verses most often associated with mortal combat.

The word used by Allah in the Quran is "qital" and this is not even from a similar root as the word "jihad". However, because these words are sometimes associated with one another in context, it is only fair to make this distinction and then proceed with the explanation.

Also NOTE: These verses, when read in total context should start with verse number 189 and continue to verse 196. This is because there were questions being asked to Muhammad, peace be upon him, regrading several points of contention amongst the followers of Islam.

First question is about the moons and whether or not there was anything related to superstition in the new moons. We see the answer was for them to only regard the new moons as a way to measure time and for them to be able to make their "hajj" or pilgrimage.

Next, came the question regarding another superstition about entering the house through doors other than the front door as if it might benefit them.
Again, the answer is there is no benefit in superstition and to enter the homes through the proper doors.

The next topic (verse 191) goes back again to the subject of the Hajj (in verse 189) even though it is not mentioned in the verse.

The followers of Islam had been prohibited from entering the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah by the idolators (mushrikeen) when they attempted to make hajj (pilgrimage).

They had walked all the way from Madinah to Makkah wearing only two big towels wrapped around them and in this condition were utterly defenceless against their enemies.

These pagans were the same people who had abused them while they still lived in Makkah, and had driven them out of their homes, stolen their properties and even killed some of them for nothing more than worshipping God without partners.

Even after signing treaties and agreements with the Muslims and forcing them to return back to Madinah, the following year the pagans once again denied them access to the Holy Ka'bah.

It was to these murderous pagans that the verses were directed. Read closely and you will see in verse 196 it even tells them what to do if they are turned back or prevented again by the idolators.

I have personally asked a number of the Arabic scholars to help me understand the exact implication and meaning of the words related to "qital" when used here. And each one I spoke with from Al Azhar in Egypt, the Madinah University in Saudi Arabia, Fes in Morocco, and even in Istanbul, Turkey were unanimous in agreement, saying the usage of the word "qital" does not mean murder or slaughter, but rather is more properly suited to be associated with the word "combat."

When read in that context, this is the result of their investigation and comparison to the English language:

2:189. "They ask you, [Muhammad], about the new moons. Say, "They are measurements of time for the people and for hajj." And it is not righteousness to enter houses from the back, but righteousness is [in] the one who fears Allah. And enter your houses from their proper doors. And fear Allah that you may succeed.

2:190. Fight in combat, in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.

2:191. And combat them wherever you overtake them and turn them out from where they turned you out (in Makkah), and the "fitnah" (terrorism waged against the believers - in this case) is worse than mortal combat. And do not combat them at the Holy Mosque (in Makkah) unless they engage in combat against you there. But, if they combat against you, then fight back in mortal combat (killing them if they are killing you). Such is the payback for these disbelievers."

2:192. And if they cease, then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

2:193. Combat them until there is no [more] fitnah (terrorism, agression and oppression) and [until] worship is [acknowledged to be] for Allah . But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors (terrorists).

2:194. [Combat in] the sacred month is for [aggression committed in] the sacred month, and for [all] violations is legal retribution. So whoever has assaulted you, then assault him in the same way that he has assaulted you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is with those who fear Him.

2:195. And spend in the way of Allah and do not throw [yourselves] with your [own] hands into destruction [by refraining]. And do good; indeed, Allah loves the ones who do good.

2:196. And complete the hajj and 'umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then [offer] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals.

And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter.

And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice.

And when you are secure, then whoever performs 'umrah [during the hajj months] followed by hajj [offers] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals.

And whoever cannot find [or afford such an animal] - then a fast of three days during hajj and of seven when you have returned [home].

Those are ten complete [days]. This is for those whose family is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram. And fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in penalty.

I feel certain, because I traveled with Dr. M. Amir Ali for years, he would have wanted us to add these findings to his lovely work in this area. May Allah accept from him and grant Him Mercy and forgive me of any mistakes, ameen. - Yusuf Estes


In the late period of the Prophet Muhammad's, peace be upon him,life, the tribe of Banu Khuza'ah became his ally. They were living near Makkah which was under the rule of the pagan Quraysh, Prophet Muhammad's, peace be upon him, own tribe. The tribe of Banu Bakr, an ally of Quraysh, with the help of some elements of Quraysh, attacked Banu Khuza'ah invoked the treaty and demanded Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, to come to their help and punish Quraysh. The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, organized a campaign against Quraysh of Makkah which resulted in the conquest of Makkah which occurred without any battle [4].


Allah orders the Muslims in the Quran:

"If you fear treachery from any group, throw back (their treaty) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms. Lo! Allah loves not the treacherous." (8:58)

Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, undertook a number of armed campaigns to remove treacherous people from power and their lodgings. He had entered into pacts with several Jewish tribes, however, some of them proved themselves treacherous. Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, launched armed campaigns against these tribes, defeated and exiled them from Medina and its surroundings [5].


Indeed, it is difficult to mobilize people to fight when they see no invaders in their territory; however, those who are charged with responsibility see dangers ahead of time and must provide leadership.

The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad, peace be upon him, had the responsibility to protect his people and the religion he established in Arabia. Whenever he received intelligence reports about enemies gathering near his borders he carried out preemptive strikes, broke their power and dispersed them [6].

Allah ordered Muslims in the Quran:

"Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it may happen that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you. And Allah knows and you know not." (2:216)


Allah declares in the Quran:

"They ask you (Muhammad) concerning fighting in the Sacred Month. Say, 'Fighting therein is a grave (offense) but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its inhabitants. Persecution is worse than killing. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith, if they can..." (2:217)

"And those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) fight back." (42:39)

To gain this freedom, Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said:

"STRIVE (JAHIDU) against the disbelievers with your hands and tongues."
(Sahih Ibn Hibban #4708)

The life of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was full of STRIVING to gain the freedom to inform and convey the message of Islam. During his stay in Makkah he used non-violent methods and after the establishment of his government in Madinah, by the permission of Allah, he used armed struggle against his enemies whenever he found it inevitable.


Allah admonishes Muslims in the Quran:

"And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)? - Men, women, and children, whose cry is: 'Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You, one who will protect; and raise for us from You, one who will help.'" (4:75)

The mission of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was to free people from tyranny and exploitation by oppressive systems. Once free, individuals in the society were then free to chose Islam or not.

Prophet Muhammad's, peace be upon him, successors continued in his footsteps and went to help oppressed people.

For example, after the repeated call by the oppressed people of Spain to the Muslims for help, Spain was liberated by Muslim forces and the tyrant rulers removed. After the conquest of Syria and Iraq by the Muslims, the Christian population of Hims reportedly said to the Muslims:

"We like your rule and justice far better than the state of oppression and tyranny under which we have been living." [7]

The defeated rulers of Syria were Roman Christians, and Iraq was ruled by Zoarastrian Persians.


Muslims should remove tyranny, treachery, bigotry, and ignorance and replace them with justice and equity.

We should provide truthful knowledge and free people from the bondage of 'associationism' (SHIRK, or multiple gods), prejudice, superstition and mythology. Muslims remove immorality, fear, crime, exploitation and replace them with divine morality, peace and education.

The Quran declares:

"Lo! Allah commands you that you restore deposits to their owners, and if you judge between mankind that you judge justly. Lo! It is proper that Allah admonishes you. Lo! Allah is ever Hearer, Seer." (4:58)

"O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah's witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety and fear Allah. And Allah is well acquainted with all that you do." (5:8)

"And of those whom We have created there is a nation who guides with the Truth and establishes justice with it." (7:181)

"Lo! Allah enjoins justice and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbids lewdness and abomination and wickedness. He exhorts you in order that you may take heed." (16:90)

"Those who, if We give them power in the land, establish prescribed prayers (SALAH) and pay the poor-due (ZAKAH) and enjoin right conduct and forbid evil. And with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs." (22:41)


The unequivocal and emphatic answer is NO! The Quran declares:

"Let there be no compulsion (or coercion) in the religion (Islam). The right direction is distinctly clear from error." (2:256)

Here is a good study of the question of the spread of Islam by a Christian missionary, T. W. Arnold:

"...of any organized attempt to force the acceptance of Islam on the non-Muslim population, or of any systematic persecution intended to stamp out the Christian religion, we hear nothing.

Had the caliphs chosen to adopt either course of action, they might have swept away Christianity as easily as Ferdinand and Isabella drove Islam out of Spain, or Louis XIV made Protestantism penal in France, or the Jews were kept out of England for 350 years.

The Eastern Churches in Asia were entirely cut off from communion with the rest of Christiandom throughout which no one would have been found to lift a finger on their behalf, as heretical communions.

So that the very survival of these Churches to the present day is a strong proof of the generally tolerant attitude of Mohammedan [sic] governments towards them" [8].

A true believer in Islam does not teach, nor do Muslims desire, conversion of any people for fear, greed, marriage or any other form of coercion.

In conclusion, jihad in Islam is STRIVING IN THE WAY OF ALLAH by pen, tongue, hand, media and, if inevitable - with arms ("qital" using weapons in combat - editor).

However, jihad in Islam does not include striving for individual or national power, dominance, glory, wealth, prestige or pride.

- End


[1]. For the sake of simplicity and easy reading, masculine pronouns have been used throughout this brochure. No exclusion of females is intended.
[2]. Haykal, M. H., THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD, Tr. Ismail R. Faruqi, American Trust Publications, 1976, p. 132.
[3]. Haykal, pp. 216, 242, 299 and 414 for the Battles of Badr, Uhud, Al-Khandaq and Hunayn, respectively.
[4]. Haykal, p. 395 for the conquest of Makkah.
[5]. Haykal, pp. 245, 277, 311 and 326 for campaigns against the tribes of Banu Qaynuqa', Banu Al-Nadir, Banu Qurayzah and Banu Lihyan, respectively. Also, see p. 283 for the Battle of Dhat Al-Riqa'.
[6]. Haykal, pp. 284, 327, 366, 387, 393, 443 and 515 for the Battles of Dawmat Al-Jandal, Banu Al-Mustaliq, Khayber, Mu'tah, Dhat Al-Salasil, Tabuk and the Campaign of Usama Ibn Zayd, respectively.
[7]. Hitti, Philip K., HISTORY OF THE ARABS, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1970, p. 153.
[8]. Arnold, Sir Thomas W. THE PREACHING OF ISLAM, A HISTORY OF THE PROPAGATION OF THE MUSLIM FAITH, Westminister A. Constable & Co., London, 1896, p. 80

May Allah guide us all to make true jihad (struggle) for truth and justice for all, ameen.

Yusuf Estes  






about_jihad about_jihad about_jihad

More? AboutJihad.com

There's More - A Lot More
"Miracles of Prophet Muhammad"

(by Dr. Bilal Philips)

Prophet's Miracles

Miracles Prove Quran

Quran Catches Atheists!

Quran: Miracle of Literature

"Miracle Birth" in Islam

PLEASE - READ, RATE & COMMENT (Time for you to speak up)


(FaceBook - Twitter - Blogs - Chats - Emails)

Or if you type & we print it out, after review (NO LINKS)


#4 Anwar 2012-03-19 17:50
Wow! very nice to know!! :-). It all makes sense too.
#3 mk 2012-03-07 12:12
sallaam malekum,__to irfan tariq: may ALlah give you strength brother and all those under oppression from so called muslims using Islam as an excuse for their own aggression and violence. May Allah wake these people up and stop shattan in trying to give Allah's Islam a bad name, he will only allow this for so long.. remember Allah allows things to Happen for a reason this may be a very big fitna (test) for true Muslims in these countries to keep there iman(faith) in Allah, and he will in time make sure justice is done and will make his Name known throughout the EARTH AND his religion he will uphold in righteous standing. Be steadfast in your faith wait upon Allah and PRAY PRAY PRAY for Allah to stop the injustice so called Muslims are performing in his name (shattans work to make Islam look bad) as long as it is within his will to do so. my prayers are with you and all those in these oppressed lands. be strong, read and listen to Qur'an regularly as possible to keep you and your families iman (faith) pure and steadfast.__man y peace and blessings
#2 ibrahim 2011-05-20 18:41
assalam alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. All true muslims know the beauty of what jihad is, and how it is a struggle against deceit, corruption and injustice. True muslims also know how those (the taghut) who try to deceive humanity try to do so by misrepresent Islam and jihad, as Islam and jihad is the path of Truth. Quran 004.076: Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the cause of taghut. So fight against the allies of Satan. Indeed, the plot of Satan has ever been weak. Quran 002.256: There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. www.AllahsQuran.com________
#1 Irfan Tariq 2010-07-20 06:53
Mashallah, very informative article .may allah bless you.
I am from Pakistan & we're facing the ugly face of terrorism in the name of Islam.
Thousands of muslims died in bombing of mosques, markets, universities.
I don't understand if it is so clear in Quran about jihad.
Why people took wrong meaning & started terrorism in the name of islam?

Need permission to post comment