Islam & Science: FACTS

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Real Science From
Real (Muslim) Scholars

You asked for it, Allah made it easy for us to give it to you... The real facts about true Islam and Muslim scholars contributions to science throughout history. No longer do you have to accept 'western substitutes' for real science and where it came from. Here is the list we have all been waiting for... Science Islam

1. History of Experimental Physics & Optics - Ibn Al Haytham

The study of experimental physics began with Ibn al-Haytham,[1] a pioneer of modern optics, who introduced the experimental scientific method and used it to drastically transform the understanding of light and vision in his Book of Optics, which has been ranked alongside Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books in the history of physics,[2] for initiating a scientific revolution in optics[3] and visual perception.[4]

2. Experimental Scientific Methold - Biruni (precursors to Newton's Law of Motion)

The experimental scientific method was soon introduced into mechanics by Biruni,[5] and early precursors to Newton's laws of motion were discovered by several Muslim scientists.

3. Law of Inertia & Concept of Momentum - Ibn Al Haytham & Avicenna

The law of inertia, known as Newton's first law of motion, and the concept of momentum were discovered by Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen)[6] and Avicenna.[7][8]

4. Fundamental Law of Classical Mechanics (before Newton's 2nd Law of Motion) - Hibat Allah Abu'l Barakat al-Baghaadi

The proportionality between force and acceleration, considered "the fundamental law of classical mechanics" and foreshadowing Newton's second law of motion, was discovered by Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi,[9]

5. Concept of Reaction - Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)

The concept of reaction, foreshadowing Newton's third law of motion, was discovered by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace).[10]

6. Universal Gravitation (before Newton's Law) - Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa Ibn Shakir, Ibn Al Haytam, Al Khazini

Theories foreshadowing Newton's law of universal gravitation were developed by Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir,[11] Ibn al-Haytham,[12] and al-Khazini.[13]

7. Acceleration & Concept of Impetus (before Galileo, enriching Aristotle's Physics)- Avicenna & Ibn Bajjah

Galileo Galilei's mathematical treatment of acceleration and his concept of impetus[14] was enriched by the commentaries of Avicenna[15] and Ibn Bajjah to Aristotle's Physics as well as the Neoplatonic tradition of Alexandria, represented by John Philoponus.[16]


References:

1. Rüdiger Thiele (2005). "In Memoriam: Matthias Schramm", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15, pp. 329–331. Cambridge University Press.

2. H. Salih, M. Al-Amri, M. El Gomati (2005). "The Miracle of Light", A World of Science 3 (3). UNESCO.

3. Sabra, A. I.; Hogendijk, J. P. (2003), The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives, MIT Press, pp. 85–118, ISBN 0262194821, OCLC 237875424

4. Hatfield, Gary (1996), "Was the Scientific Revolution Really a Revolution in Science?", in Ragep, F. J.; Ragep, Sally P.; Livesey, Steven John, Tradition, Transmission, Transformation: Proceedings of Two Conferences on Pre-modern Science held at the University of Oklahoma, Brill Publishers, p. 500, ISBN 9004091262, OCLC 234073624 234096934 19740432 234073624 234096934

5. Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, pp. 614–642 [642]. Routledge, London and New York.

6. Abdus Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 179–213.

7. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "The achievements of Ibn Sina in the field of science and his contributions to its philosophy", Islam & Science, December 2003.

8. a b Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", Physics Education 40 (2), p. 141.

9. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Conception Of Intellectual Life", in Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Vol. 2, p. 65, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973–1974.

10. Shlomo Pines (1970), Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī, Hibat Allah, 1, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 26–28, ISBN 0684101149
(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (4), pp. 521–546 [528].)

11. Shlomo Pines (1964), "La dynamique d’Ibn Bajja", in Mélanges Alexandre Koyré, I, 442–468 [462, 468], Paris.
(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (4), pp. 521–546 [543].)

12. Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 191.

13. Nader El-Bizri (2006), "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, pp. 343–345, Routledge, New York, London.

14. Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 622. London and New York: Routledge.

15. Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences, trans. Stillman Drake, (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Pr., 1974), pp. 217, 225, 296–7.

16. Ernest A. Moody (1951). "Galileo and Avempace: The Dynamics of the Leaning Tower Experiment (I)", Journal of the History of Ideas 12 (2), pp. 163–193 (192f.)

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#1 sister 2011-09-20 16:27
Alhamdulillah for being a muslim¬hing else ever Ameen

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