User Rating: 5 / 5

Star ActiveStar ActiveStar ActiveStar ActiveStar Active



Islam Newsroom ~ "News We Need - When We Need it"


  1. Increased transparency: Promote transparency in decision-making processes, policymaking, and the allocation of resources. This can help build trust and ensure accountability.
  2. Electoral Reforms: Continuously evaluate and improve the electoral system to enhance representation, reduce barriers to participation, and address issues like gerrymandering and campaign financing.
  3. Systemic Inequalities: Take steps to address systemic inequalities, such as racial, economic, and gender disparities, through targeted policies and reforms.
  4. Civic Education & Engagement: Strengthen civic education programs to ensure citizens are well-informed about their rights, responsibilities, and the functioning of the government. Encourage active civic engagement and participation.
  5. Diverse Perspectives: Promote inclusivity and diversity in decision-making bodies, ensuring that a wide range of voices and experiences are represented.

There are any other ways to enhance the effectiveness and fairness of a government:

Continuous evaluation; public input; adaptability all help form a more effective and fair system.


After the Edict of Milan, the religion of Jesus, Christianity, experienced significant changes and spread throughout the world in several ways:

  1. Roman Empire’s Expansion: With the end of persecution, Christianity was able to grow and spread more freely within the Roman Empire. Missionaries and evangelists traveled to different regions, spreading the teachings of Jesus and establishing Christian communities under the Holy Roman Empire.
  2. CONVERSION OF ROMAN EMPERORS: The conversion of Emperor Constantine and later Emperor Theodosius I played a crucial role in the spread of Christianity. These conversions brought legitimacy and support to the faith, leading to its establishment as the state religion of the Roman Empire.
  3. ECUMENICAL COUNCILS, such as the Council of Nicaea, were convened to address theological debates and establish orthodox beliefs. These councils played a significant role in shaping Christian doctrine and ensuring doctrinal unity.
  4. Missionary Activities: Christian missionaries embarked on journeys to spread the teachings of Jesus beyond the Roman Empire. They traveled to various regions, including Africa, Asia, and Europe, contributing to the global spread of Christianity.
  5. Cultural Adaptation: Christianity adapted to local cultures and traditions as it spread to different regions. This process, known as inculturation, allowed Christianity to resonate with diverse populations and facilitated its acceptance in various cultural contexts.
  6. Christian Scholars & Writers Influence: The works of early Christian scholars and writers, such as Augustine of Hippo and Origen, played a crucial role in shaping Christian thought and spreading its ideas through their writings and teachings.

Through these processes, Christianity gradually spread throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and beyond, becoming a global religion with diverse expressions and traditions. The Edict of Milan marked a turning point in its history, allowing for its growth, es

Christianity Changed After the Edict of Milan

The Christian religion underwent significant changes after the Edict of Milan. With the end of persecution and the official recognition of Christianity, the religion experienced growth and transformation. Changes included:

  1. Expansion: Christianity spread more rapidly throughout the Roman Empire as it gained legal protection and support.
  2. Institutionalization: The Church became more organized and structured, with the establishment of hierarchical leadership, such as bishops and councils.
  3. Influence on society: Christianity began to influence various aspects of society, including ethics, laws, and cultural practices.
  4. Doctrinal developments: The period following the Edict of Milan saw the emergence of theological debates and the formulation of key Christian doctrines, such as the nature of Christ and the Trinity.
  5. Church-state relationship: Christianity's newfound legal status led to a complex relationship with the state, as it became intertwined with political power.

These changes shaped the trajectory of Christianity, leading to its eventual establishment as the dominant religion in the Roman Empire and beyond.


The Edict of Milan was a landmark proclamation issued in 313 CE by Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius. It granted religious tolerance and freedom to Christians within the Roman Empire, effectively ending the persecution they had faced for centuries.

The edict was a response to the growing influence and presence of Christianity in the empire. It aimed to establish a policy of religious tolerance by granting Christians the right to practice their faith openly and freely. The edict also sought to restore confiscated Christian properties and provide restitution for past injustices.

By granting official recognition and protection to Christianity, the Edict of Milan had profound implications. It marked a significant turning point in the history of Christianity, allowing the religion to flourish and grow without fear of persecution. This newfound freedom led to the rapid expansion of Christianity, as more people were attracted to the faith and converted.

Moreover, the edict set the stage for the eventual establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion in the Roman Empire. It paved the way for the Church to gain influence and power, shaping the course of Western civilization.

Overall, the Edict of Milan played a crucial role in the history of Christianity, marking the beginning of a new era of religious freedom and setting the stage for the religion's widespread acceptance and influence in the centuries to come.


The Roman Emperor who issued the Edict of Milan was Constantine, initially he followed traditional Roman religion, involving worship of multiple gods and goddesses. However, his religious beliefs underwent a transformation over time.

Constantine's religious journey is often associated with a vision he had before a decisive battle in 312 CE. According to his account, he saw a vision of a Christian symbol, the Chi-Rho, and heard a voice that said, "In this sign, you shall conquer." This experience led Constantine to attribute his victory to the Christian God and subsequently influenced his religious affiliation.

While Constantine's conversion to Christianity is a subject of debate among historians, he became increasingly supportive of the Christian faith after the Battle of Milvian Bridge. He issued the Edict of Milan, granting religious freedom to Christians, and later took steps to promote and protect Christianity within the Roman Empire.

If Constantine fully embraced Christianity or held syncretic beliefs combining elements of both Roman and Christian traditions is a matter of interpretation. However, his actions and policies played a crucial role in the rise of the Roman version of Christianity and its eventual establishment as the state religion in all the Roman Empire.

tablishment, and eventual impact on societies worldwide.


The Holy Roman Empire was established in 800 CE, long after the Edict of Milan (318 CE). The Edict of Milan itself pertained to the Roman Empire, very different from the Holy Roman Empire.

After the Edict of Milan, Christianity did indeed experience growth and spread within the Roman Empire. Missionaries and evangelists played a crucial role in spreading the teachings of Jesus to different regions, establishing Christian communities, and contributing to the expansion of Christianity within the Roman Empire.

Roman Empire vs. “HOLY” Roman Empire

  1. Time Period: The Roman Empire existed from 27 BCE to 476 CE, while the Holy Roman Empire was established in 800 CE and lasted until 1806 CE.
  2. Successor States: The Roman Empire was succeeded by various states and empires, including the Byzantine Empire in the East and various Germanic kingdoms in the West. The Holy Roman Empire was established as a successor to the Western Roman Empire, but it was a separate political entity.
  3. Geographical Scope: The Roman Empire was primarily centered around the Mediterranean region, including parts of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. The Holy Roman Empire, on the other hand, was located in Central Europe, encompassing present-day Germany, Austria, and parts of other neighboring countries.
  4. Political Structure: The Roman Empire had a centralized imperial structure, with an emperor as the supreme ruler. The Holy Roman Empire, despite its name, was a decentralized confederation of states, with an elected emperor who held limited authority over the member states.
  5. Religion: The Roman Empire initially practiced polytheistic Roman religion, but later adopted Christianity as its official religion. The Holy Roman Empire, as the name suggests, had strong ties to Christianity, with the ruling emperors often being crowned by the Pope and claiming to be defenders of the Catholic Church.
  6. Cultural Influence: The Roman Empire had a significant impact on art, architecture, and culture, with its Greco-Roman traditions influencing subsequent civilizations. The Holy Roman Empire had a more localized cultural influence, with the preservation of Germanic and Central European traditions.

Just a few of key differences between the ancient Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. Each had its own unique characteristics and historical significance.


476 CE to 800 CE

The time period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire is often referred to as the Early Middle Ages or the Migration Period. During this time, various Germanic kingdoms and states emerged in the former Western Roman territories. The most notable among them were the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, and the Kingdom of the Lombards. It was a time of political fragmentation and instability in Europe, with different Germanic tribes and peoples vying for power and territory.

Roman Empire’s Rise (and fall)

The Rise:

  • The Roman Republic, established in 509 BCE, gradually expanded its influence and territory through military conquests, incorporating various regions into its domain.
  • Under Julius Caesar and subsequent emperors, the Roman Empire reached its peak, spanning from Britain to Egypt and from Spain to Mesopotamia.
  • The empire's rise was fueled by effective governance, military prowess, infrastructure development, and assimilation of its conquered peoples.

The Fall:

  • Internal strife, political instability, and economic challenges weakened the empire over time.
  • External pressures, invasions of Germanic tribes, Huns, and Visigoths, further strained the empire's defenses.
  • 476 CE: the Western Roman Empire fell, and last emperor was deposed by Germanic chieftain Odoacer, marking the end of ancient Rome.

Factors of the fall:

Corruption, economic decline, military overextension, and the inability to effectively manage the vast empire. The fall of the Western Roman Empire led to the fragmentation of Europe and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

NOTE: The Eastern Roman Empire, “Byzantine Empire”, continued on for a thousand years, preserving Roman cultures, traditions, religious practices and exerting influence in the Eastern Mediterranean.

The Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)

The Eastern version of the Roman Empire continued on after the fall of the Western Roman Empire (1453 CE).

Key points of the Byzantine Empire:

  1. Foundation: The Byzantine Empire was established in 330 CE when Emperor Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to the city of Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul).
  2. Greek Influence: The Byzantine Empire had a strong Greek cultural influence, with Greek language and traditions prevailing over Latin. This contributed to the distinct identity of the empire.
  3. Christianity: The Byzantine Empire became a center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, with the emperor being the head (pope) of the Church. Theological disputes, such as the Iconoclastic Controversy, shaped religious practices and influenced political dynamics.
  4. Justinian I: Emperor Justinian I (527-565 CE) is known for his efforts to restore the former glory of the Roman Empire. He codified Roman laws in the Corpus Juris Civilis and initiated ambitious building projects, including the Hagia Sophia.
  5. Byzantine Golden Age: The period from the 9th to the 11th centuries is often considered the Byzantine Golden Age. During this time, the empire experienced economic prosperity, cultural flourishing, and military successes.
  6. Iconoclasm: The Byzantine Empire went through periods of Iconoclasm, during which the use of religious icons was debated and sometimes banned. The final restoration of icons occurred in 843 CE with the Triumph of Orthodoxy.
  7. Decline and Fall: The Byzantine Empire faced numerous challenges, invasions by Arab forces, Seljuk Turks, and the Crusaders. The Fourth Crusade in 1204 CE resulted in the sack of Constantinople by Western European forces, leading to the fragmentation of the empire. Constantinople was later recaptured by the Byzantines in 1261 CE, but the empire continued to decline.
  8. Ottoman Conquest: In 1453 CE, the Byzantine Empire finally fell to the Muslims of Ottoman Turks, with the capture of Constantinople. This marked the end of the Byzantine Empire and the beginning of the Ottoman Empire.

The Byzantine Empire left a lasting impact on art, architecture, literature, and religious traditions. Its legacy can be seen in the preservation and dissemination of classical Greek and Roman knowledge during the Middle Ages.


Need permission to post comment